Рабочая программа дисциплины Кросс-культурные коммуникации (Cross-Cultural Communications) для майнора «Международный бизнес»



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6. Tests and control tasks





Type of control

Form of control

Requirements

Current

(week)


Class activity, recorded as entries into The Journal of Class Participation

Students are expected to read and analyse assigned literature and be able to participate in discussions in class.

Intermediate

Class participation

Students make in-class presentations, based on lectures and assigned readings. Students analyse cases dealing with cross-cultural business communication

Intermediate written in-class test

Test includes assignments dealing with the topics covered in the first half of the course.

Intermediate presentation

Students present preliminary versions of their research projects in the end of the third module.

Final research project presentation

Final presentation of team projects on cultural profiles of the country assigned for a group.

Final

Final exam

Multiple choice test, covering all course materials


6.1 Grading criteria

Students’ final grade for the course is determined by their compliance with the course requirements and the overall performance in the course.

Final grade is made of the grades for


  1. Home assignments throughout the course, including case analyses G class participation.

Criterion: grades for every assignment (in 10-point scale) are summed up and averaged

  1. Intermediate presentation G intermediate presentation

Criterion: the average of two marks:

  • Oral presentation – 10 points is assigned for the perfect presentation, corresponding to all requirements.

  • Presentation text – 10 points is assigned for the perfect content, corresponding to all requirements.

  1. The final research project presentation G final presentation

Criterion: the average of three marks:

  • Oral presentation – 10 points is assigned for the perfect presentation, corresponding to all requirements.

  • Presentation text – 10 points is assigned for the perfect content, corresponding to all requirements.

  • Analytical document – 10 points is assigned for the perfect content, corresponding to all requirements, which includes comprehensive cultural profile of the country chosen, recommendations for communicating, negotiating and doing business with partners from the country, based on unique literature besides assigned literature.

The final grade accounts for the results of a student’s performance as follows:

G accumulated = 0,15*G class participation + 0,25*G intermediate presentation

+0,6*G final presentation
G final = 0,8*G accumulated + 0,2*G exam

Final exam G final



Criterion:

10 points – no less than 80% of correct, answers;

1 point – no more than 10% of correct answers, other grades (from 9 to 2) are calculated proportionally to the percentage of correct answers.
Rounding procedure for the grades is following: if the score, which is calculated by the formula above, is greater than or equal to the arithmetic mean between the nearest integer values​​, then the higher of the nearest integer value is taken, otherwise – the lower of the nearest integer values is used​​.

Students whose accumulated grade is 8 – 10 points are not required to pass final exam: in this case their final grade (G final) is equal to their accumulated grade (G accumulated).


7. The Course Content
Topic 1. Elements of culture: values, worldviews, attitudes and beliefs, traditions, myths. Cultures, subcultures, countercultures, ethnocentrism.

Globalization and interconnectedness. Classification of cultures. Samuel Huntington: Civilizations. Dominant culture and co-culture. Primary elements of non-material culture: History, Religion, Social organizations, Language. Methodology of cross-cultural research. Material and non-material culture, values and their significance. Milton Rokeach ends-values and means-values. Worldviews, integrating values and attitudes. Cultural traditions and models of behavior. Cultural diffusion. Significance and persistence of cultural myths.


Core readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Communication Between Cultures. Cengage Learning (2012)

Davidov, Eldad, Peter Schmidt, Jaak Billiet - Cross-Cultural Analysis. Methods and Applications, Routledge (2014)

Huntington, Samuel P. - The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World. Order-Simon & Schuster (1996)

Hofstede, Geert H; Gert Jan Hofstede; Michael Minkov - Cultures and organizations: software of the mind: intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. McGraw-Hill (2010)

Matsumoto, David and Fons J. R. van de Vijver (eds.) - Cross-Cultural Research Methods in Psychology (Culture and Psychology). Cambridge University Press (2010)



Additional readings:

King, Thomas F. (ed.) - A Companion to Cultural Resource Management, Wiley-Blackwell (2011)


Topic 2. Cultures, cultural clusters or “civilizations”, nationalism and civil religions

Cultural values dimensions and classification. Schwartz, ESS: cross-cultural research of values and personal traits. Ingelhart: modernization theory, World Values Survey (WVS), dimensions: “traditional vs. secular-rational values” and “survival vs. self-expression values. Hofstede cultural dimensions and GLOBE project: Power distance index (PDI), Individualism (IDV) vs. collectivism, Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI), Masculinity (MAS), vs. femininity, Long-term orientation (LTO), vs. short term orientation, Indulgence versus restraint (IVR). Robert Bellah: civil religion.



Core readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Communication Between Cultures. Cengage Learning (2012)

Moll, Melanie - The Quintessence of Intercultural Business Communication. Springer Berlin Heidelberg (2012)

Additional readings:

Martin, Judith Thomas - Nakayama-Intercultural Communication in Contexts (5th Edition). McGraw-Hill (2009)

Jackson, Jane (ed.) - The Routledge handbook of language and intercultural communication. Routledge (2013)

Topic 3. Cultural biases and stereotypes. Impression management styles, strategies and tactics in different cultures.

Prejudice. Discrimination. Stereotype. Cognitive and social functions of stereotypes (explanation, justification, social differentiation). Factors and mechanisms of stereotype formation (correspondence bias, illusory correlation, common environment, socialization and upbringing, intergroup relations). Self-fulfilling prophecy. Scape-goating. Face-ism. Dealing with stereotypes. Erwin Goffman: dramaturgical analysis. Front-stage and back-stage. Frames, props (artefacts, dressing styles, vocabulary, accents), implicit expectations and aligning actions. Ingratiation, Self-promotion, Exemplification, Intimidation, Supplication.


Core readings:

Martin, Judith Thomas - Nakayama-Intercultural Communication in Contexts (5th Edition). McGraw-Hill (2009)

Shiraev, Eric B. and David A. - Levy-Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications, 4th Edition. Allyn & Bacon (2010)

Livermore, David - The Cultural Intelligence Difference: Master the One Skill You Can't Do Without in Today's Global Economy Hardcover. AMACOM (2011)

Peterson, Brooks - Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from Other Cultures. Intercultural Press (2004)

Thomas, David C. and Kerr Inkson - Cultural Intelligence: People Skills for Global Business. Berrett-Koehler Publishers (2004)


Additional readings:

Gesteland, Richard R - Cross-cultural business behavior: negotiating, selling, sourcing and managing across cultures. Copenhagen Business School Press (2005)

Livermore, David - Leading with Cultural Intelligence: The New Secret to Success. AMACOM (2009)
Topic 4. McLuhan, uncertainty management, communication competence

Marshall McLuhan’s imperatives for cross-cultural communication: technological, economic, demographic, personal, ethical, peace. Reasons for cultural differences: history, ecology, technology, biology, institutional networks, interpersonal communication patterns. Uncertainty avoidance (Berger) and three strategies for dealing with uncertainty.



Core readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Communication Between Cultures. Cengage Learning (2012) – Chapter 1.



Additional readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Cengage Learning (2014)


Topic 5. The Deep Structure of Culture: Roots of Reality. Artefacts, narratives, rituals.

Deep structures of any culture (family, history, and religion) define, create, transmit, maintain, and reinforce the basic elements of every culture. Forms and functions of family. Individualistic and collectivistic families. History: a) explains character of the culture; b) helps remember and transmit events and articles. Arthur Schlesinger: history cycles. Features and types of religions. BASIC by Margaret Olebe.



Core readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Communication Between Cultures. Cengage Learning (2012) – Chapter 4, Chapter 5.



Additional readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Cengage Learning (2014)



Topic 6. Identities, personal, cultural.

Stella Ting-Toomey’s definition of identity as a “reflective self-conception or self-image”. Identity as a dynamic phenomenon. Multiple identities: human, social, personal. Specifics of racial, ethnic, gender, national, regional, organizational, personal and cyber and fantasy identities. Stages of identity formation. Identity manifestations in communication.



Core readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Communication Between Cultures. Cengage Learning (2012) – Chapter 7.



Additional readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Cengage Learning (2014)



Topic 7. Language, verbal intercultural communication

Functions of language: social interaction, social cohesion, expression of identity. Language variations: accent, dialect, argot, slang. Conversational taboos. Cultural considerations in interpretation and translation. Recommendations for communications with people, using second language (mindfulness, speech rate, vocabulary and nonverbal feedback).

Most influential languages in contemporary world and their specifics: Chinese, Spanish,

English, Arabic, and Russian.



Core readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Communication Between Cultures. Cengage Learning (2012) – Chapter 8.



Additional readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Cengage Learning (2014)



Topic 8. Nonverbal communication

The functions of nonverbal communication: expressing internal state, creating identity, regulating interaction, repeating the message, substituting for words. Intentional and nonintentional messages. Ambiguity and multiple meanings in nonverbal communication. Classification of nonverbal communication means: appearance, body movement (posture, gestures), facial expression, eye contact and gaze, touch, paralanguage, vocal qualities (volume, rate, pitch, tempo, resonance, pronunciation, tone). Space and distance, personal space. Sense of time: monochronic or polychronic. Silence and its significance in different cultures.



Core readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Communication Between Cultures. Cengage Learning (2012) – Chapter 9.



Additional readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Cengage Learning (2014)



Topic 9. Intercultural relations and communication

Worldview is a culture’s orientation toward God, humanity, nature, the universe, life, death, sickness, and other philosophical issues concerning existence. Worldviews and their impact on communication. Reconciling historical disagreements. Ethical issues in cross-cultural relations. Immigration and other phenomena of intercultural penetration. Problems related to acculturation. Perception in conflicts. Monitoring actions and counter-actions.



Core readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Communication Between Cultures. Cengage Learning (2012) – Chapter 4.



Additional readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Cengage Learning (2014)



Topic 10. Intercultural conflicts

Basic aspects or conflict situation. Communication norms and models in conflict situations. Conflict sequence. The factors, facilitating and complicating conflict resolution. Reframing conflict situation: conflict as an opportunity. Persuasion in conflict interaction. Cross-cultural competence in conflict resolution and collaborative problem-solving.



Core readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Communication Between Cultures. Cengage Learning (2012)



Additional readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Cengage Learning (2014)



Topic 11. Venturing into a new culture

The basic components of communication competence: motivation, knowledge, skills, sensitivity, and character. Determining and monitoring communications style. Dealing with culture shock. Empathy and communication flexibility. Coping mechanisms: assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization. Adaptation strategies: making personal contact with the host culture, learning about the host culture, and participating in cultural activities.



Core readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Communication Between Cultures. Cengage Learning (2012) – Chapter 11.



Additional readings:

Samovar, Larry A., Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn S. Roy - Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Cengage Learning (2014)



Topic 12. Nature of negotiation: strategizing, framing, planning

Bargaining and negotiation. Attributes of negotiation situation. Alternatives to negotiation. Tangibles and intangibles in negotiations. Planning negotiations. Negotiating individually and in teams. Preparing for negotiations. Perception and empathy in negotiations. Competent negotiator’s qualities.



Core readings:

Lewicki, Roy, Bruce Barry, David Saunders - Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition. McGraw-Hill (2014) – Chapters 1- 2



Additional readings:

Brett, Jeanne M. - Negotiating Globally: How to Negotiate Deals, Resolve Disputes, and Make Decisions Across Cultural Boundaries. John Wiley & Sons (2007)

Faure, Guy Olivier (ed.) - How People Negotiate: Resolving Disputes in Different Cultures. Springer (2003)

Gelfand, Michele, Jeanne Brett - The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture. Stanford Business Books (2004)



Topic 13. Strategy and tactics of distributive bargaining

Distributive negotiations (Win-Lose). Target point, walk-away or resistance point, initial offer. Give-and-take process. Tactics of distributive negotiations: Auction, Brinksmanship, Bogey, Defense in Depth, Deadlines, Flinch, Good Guy/Bad Guy, Highball/Lowball, The Nibble, Snow Job, Foot-in-the-Door, Door-in-the-Face



Core readings:

Lewicki, Roy, Bruce Barry, David Saunders - Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition. McGraw-Hill (2014) – Chapter 3



Additional readings:

Gates, Steve – The Negotiation Book: Your Definitive Guide to Successful Negotiating –John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2016)



Topic 14. Strategy and tactics of integrative bargaining

Integrative negotiations (Win-Win). Positions and interests. Cooperative problem-solving. Separating the person from the problem. Tactics of integrative negotiations: Expanding Pie, Bridging, Logrolling. Claiming value and creating value.



Core readings:

Lewicki, Roy, Bruce Barry , David Saunders - Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition. McGraw-Hill (2014) – Chapter 4



Additional readings:

Gates, Steve – The Negotiation Book: Your Definitive Guide to Successful Negotiating –John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2016)



Topic 15. Regional and national negotiation styles

Key cultural variables, influencing negotiations (indirect dealing vs direct dealing, high-context vs low-context, relationship oriented vs task-oriented, holistic vs contractually oriented, Dimensions of negotiation styles. Competitive and problem-solving styles of negotiations. Russian, British, American, Arabic, Chinese, French, German negotiating styles. Interplay of cultural styles and personal styles of negotiating.



Core readings:

Moore, Christopher W., Peter J. Woodrow – Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation - Jossey-Bass (2010)



Additional readings:

McCarthy, Alan, Steve Hay – Advanced Negotiation Techniques, Apress (2015)


8. Educational Technologies
The course syllabus, reading texts, presentations, practical tasks and home assignments will be available in the LMS where all student will be assigned, and also sent by e-mail on demand. Students are expected to log in to the course web-site on a regular basis.
8. 1. Recommendations for teachers

Cross-cultural communications are a very dynamic and fluid fields. There are many contradictory conclusions and recommendations in both academic and popular texts. The major task for the lecturer is to engage students in discussions, which will help to develop students’ ability to compare, analyze, criticize and choose among various approaches.

For this purpose, we use during the seminars analysis of cases, based on real situations dealing with cross-cultural communication and negotiations both in business and everyday life.

It is highly recommended to inspire students to share with class their personal experience of cross-cultural communication.


8. 2. Recommendations for students

Teamwork on research projects is especially important for this course. Excellent research projects require extra materials besides literature recommended for the course. Some Internet sites could be also very helpful, such as World Cultures Encyclopedia http://www.everyculture.com/ and TED Talks. http://www.ted.com.

Participation in discussions should concentrate on comparison of different cultural phenomena and especially on their role in planning and performing communication in cross-cultural perspective.
9. Evaluation tools for current and final control
To keep up with the requirements for the course students should study lectures and assigned literature and use electronic resources, especially full-text journal data bases, such as ProQuest, Jstor, Science Direct, Emerald and EBSCO.

9.1 Example of assignments for intermediate test


  1. Please, compare cultural dimensions, suggested by Ingelhart – Welzel and by Hofstede.

What are similarities and differences?

What are comparative advantages and disadvantages of these two models of culture and cultural dimensions?

Please, provide arguments, supporting your opinion.


  1. Please select any culture of your choice, and give me one example of that culture's artifact, narrative and ritual in any of this culture's deep structures. Give an example of how this artifact, narrative and ritual affect communication in that culture.

9.2 Examples of questions for the final test

  1. Polish communication style is ….

  1. very direct with a lot of eye contact

  2. very indirect with very little eye contact

  3. very indirect with a lot of eye contact

  1. You are making a series of proposals and your Bulgarian counterpart keeps nodding her head. Does this mean …

  1. Yes, I agree completely.

  2. Go on, I’m listening.

  3. No, I don’t agree.

  1. You are making a series of proposals and your Japanese counterpart keeps nodding his head. Does this mean …

  1. Yes, I agree completely.

  2. Go on, I’m listening.

  3. No, I don’t agree.

  1. You’re in Japan. A client gives you his card. You should take it with …

  1. your left hand

  2. your right hand

  3. both hands

  1. And then what should you do with it?

  1. Look at it carefully and then put it away in your pocket

  2. Look at it carefully and place it on the table in front of you during the meeting.

  3. Look at it carefully and then pass it to your colleagues so they can see it.

  1. You are talking to a German whom you have already met several times. You should call him by…

  1. his first name – Klaus

  2. his surname - eg Schmidt

  3. “Mr” + surname – Herr Schmidt

  4. his title - Doctor

  5. his title and surname – Doctor Schmidt

  6. “Mr” + title + surname - Herr Doktor Schmidt

  1. In which three of the following countries is it important to be on time for a business meeting?

  1. Mexico

  2. Portugal

  3. Sweden

  4. Germany

  5. Egypt

  6. China

10. Information basis for the course



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